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In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /home/ih712446/thiwaratri-resort.com/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 451 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /home/ih712446/thiwaratri-resort.com/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 451 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /home/ih712446/thiwaratri-resort.com/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 451 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /home/ih712446/thiwaratri-resort.com/engine/modules/show.full.php on line 451 Рынок электроэнергии Западной Европы » Политика зарубежных стран
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Рынок электроэнергии Западной Европы
13-12-2011, 17:32
Категория: Зарождение
Рынок электроэнергии Западной ЕвропыЛиберализация Европейского рынка электроэнергии дала свои плоды: появились так называемые энергетические биржи, которые включают широкий круг заинтересованных лиц. Туда входят энергосберегающие и энергогенерирующие компании, покупатели электричества и трейдеры, денежные учреждения и многие другие.
Процессы реформирования были начаты еще в конце девяностых годов, когда была принята Директива о либерализации европейского рынка.
Так была основана, например: биржа Powernext в Париже, EEX в Германии (на основе слияния двух бирж в Лецпциге и Франкфурте). Затем они создали EPEX Spot SE – общую биржу. Сегодня она занимает первое место среди энергетических бирж.
Энергетические биржи работают следующим образом. До 12.00, называемого временем закрытия ворот, принимаются заказы. Торги представляют собой перекрытый аукцион. Затем покупатель переводит банку оплату (банк выбирается из членов клирингового здания ЕСС).
Участникам биржевых торгов необходимо сделать вывод балансового соглашения с оператором. За небалансы в системе не отвечает биржа, это забота торгующих и клирингового дома. Также существуют определенные ценовые лимиты, установленные биржей на случай форс-мажорных обстоятельств.
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